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<br />Furthermore, persistent studies with fish and Daphnia were carried out. For the toxicity to aquatic plants, no guideline examine is on the market. However, bearing in mind the out there research for toxicity to aquatic vegetation, the NOEC for algae may be assumed to be greater than that for Daphnia magna. Exposure to resorcinol by way of peeling agents presents an acute exposure scenario the place the person is uncovered to a excessive concentration 7. Acute effects have been described underneath these situations.<br /><br />There are differences in thyroid physiology between people and animals. The weight of proof means that rodents are extra sensitive to thyroid results than humans.<br />Complete restoration in all animals occurred within 1—1. Of the next research, the repeated-dose toxicity studies that had been deemed to be most related to the risk assessment are summarized in Appendix 6. In a examine carried out by NTP , five male and female F rats had been dosed with resorcinol in deionized water via gavage at zero, High-dose females had significantly decreased absolute and relative thymus weights. No other biologically vital variations in organ weights were observed. In distinction to those findings, Eastin et al.<br /><br /><h2></h2><br />The organisms had been exposed to the test concentrations for ninety six h. Biological observations were performed day by day.<br />The third study, performed in , included of energetic workers. In subjects males, thirteen ladies with a imply age of 37 years, both laboratory and other tests, together with medical examination, had been done; no abnormal thyroid glands or changes in T 4 values had been found in any of the themes compared with regular values Bauer, The above knowledge are limited as a result of small examine sizes, lack of comparison groups, lacking present and historic control information, and missing data concerning potential exposure classes. In a research in a plant producing resorcinol by sulfonation of benzene — and also producing beta -resorcylic acid, resorcinol—formaldehyde resins, sulfites, and sulfates — workers have been uncovered primarily to resorcinol, but the exposure to other agents was not measured for publicity levels, see part 6. In this plant, three cross-sectional studies were carried out between and Flickinger, In , medical examinations, chest X-rays, pulmonary perform, haematology, and clinical chemistry had been performed with of individuals actively employed at a manufacturing plant in Pennsylvania, USA. In addition, male rats have larger circulating levels of TSH than females.<br /><br /><h5></h5><br /><br /><ul><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>Under aerobic circumstances, resorcinol proved to be readily biodegradable in a take a look at carried out based on OECD TG C, and it is likely to be biodegraded underneath anaerobic situations.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>Five of 3.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>In one other research, rats have been uncovered to zero or zero.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>However, bearing in mind the obtainable research for toxicity to aquatic crops, the NOEC for algae could be assumed to be higher than that for Daphnia magna.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>Resorcinol confirmed a focus-dependent enhance in labelling index [ 3 H]thymidine , acanthosis, and papillomatosis.</li><br />  <br /> <br /> <br /></ul><br />Fifty per cent of survivors had been sacrificed 1 week later, and blood and urine samples have been taken. Resorcinol confirmed a concentration-dependent increase in labelling index [ three H]thymidine , acanthosis, and papillomatosis. After software of an ointment containing To study the goitrogenic exercise of resorcinol, female Wistar rats were handled twice every day for 28 days by rubbing 6 g of an ointment containing Increased thyroid gland weights 2.<br />In , medical examinations see above and thyroid assessments have been carried out with of presumably active plant workers males and 33 girls. Flaked resorcinol caused no perceptible to moderate irritation intact skin or no perceptible necrosis abraded skin.<br />Especially in rats, lengthy-time period perturbations of the pituitary—thyroid axis brought on by xenobiotics or physiological alterations e. For the thyroid, a non-statistically important increase in TSH levels was reported for interim males, but not at scheduled necropsy. In excessive-dosed females, T three ranges were increased, while there was no impact on T 3 or T four ranges in males.<br />According to the results obtained, Daphnia magna is probably the most delicate organism, and resorcinol may be categorized as acutely toxic only to Daphnia. However, this worth is questionable to be used as a limit value in danger evaluation that is the highest concentration tested in this research , and the NOEC might be considerably higher than said within the research. In the atmosphere, resorcinol is rapidly degraded half-life about 2 h by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. Under aerobic situations, resorcinol proved to be readily biodegradable in a check performed in accordance with OECD TG C, and it's prone to be biodegraded beneath anaerobic conditions.<br /><br /><h3></h3><br />In rodents, the upper sensitivity can also be associated to a shorter plasma half-lifetime of T four than in people as a result of considerable variations between species in the transport proteins for thyroid hormones. In plasma, the T four half-life is about 12—24 h in rats vs 5—9 days in humans, and the serum levels of TSH are about 25 occasions greater in rodents than in people.<br /><br /><h1></h1><br />Experimental data on soil sorption utilizing silty loam point out a very low potential for geoaccumulation. However, the uncovered space cm 2 was tremendously in extra of the average area of pores and skin usually handled for pimples. Formulations tested in the key studies anti-pimples cream and hair dye have in all probability modified over the past 20 or more years. Resorcinol enters the environment primarily throughout its utilization in shopper merchandise hair dyes and pharmaceuticals. In addition, localized excessive concentrations can appear in coal conversion wastewater or in wastewater in areas with oil shale mining.<br />There is no guideline research on toxicity for aquatic plants obtainable. As just one focus was examined, the research can't be used within the danger analysis. There are a number of research out there on acute toxicity to totally different fish species.
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<br />In rodents, the upper sensitivity can also be associated to a shorter plasma half-lifetime of T four than in people due to appreciable variations between species in the transport proteins for thyroid hormones. In plasma, the T 4 half-life is about 12—24 h in rats vs 5—9 days in humans, and the serum ranges of TSH are about 25 occasions greater in rodents than in people.<br />Although thyroid effects are a big finish-level in both human case-studies and animal studies, there is a lack of consistency in the ends in the animal studies. Resorcinol triggered no adverse effects in several reproduction and developmental toxicity research in rats and rabbits. Resorcinol is not thought-about to be genotoxic.<br />In common, the h LC 50 values for resorcinol had been in the vary between In move-via tests and analytical monitoring, DeGraeve et al. As mentioned in section 9. Complete healing was famous after about 1 week of absence from work. However, with increasing resorcinol concentrations, there was also a rise in the variety of persons who tested optimistic. Resorcinol was also examined in hairdressers, who may have been involved with resorcinol-containing hair dyes.<br /><br />Animals that died showed hyperaemia and distension of abdomen and gut, whereas there were no gross lesions at necropsy in survivors Flickinger, In another examine with CFY rats. Most of the studies are of enough quality and acceptable for threat characterization purposes.<br />The effects had been more pronounced at seventy two h. The irritation index was given as 4. However, owing to lacking correlating histopathological changes within the three ranges of the brain examined and in the absence of a dose—response relationship, different indicators of developmental delay, or different modifications in CNS perform, these results were not thought-about as conclusive proof of a change in CNS function. In the next two-technology reproductive toxicity study RTF, , these end-points weren't investigated. No resorcinol-related effects on F 0 and F 1 pup survival or the overall bodily situation of the pups during the pre-weaning period were noticed.<br /><br /><h5></h5><br />Fifty per cent of survivors were sacrificed 1 week later, and blood and urine samples have been taken. Resorcinol showed a focus-dependent increase in labelling index [ three H]thymidine , acanthosis, and papillomatosis. After application of an ointment containing To examine the goitrogenic activity of resorcinol, female Wistar rats have been treated twice daily for 28 days by rubbing 6 g of an ointment containing Increased thyroid gland weights 2.<br />The tolerable consumption of zero. It is therefore potential that these neurological effects are because of the acute effect of the gavage administration. CNS effects in humans and animals have been associated with acute exposure to resorcinol.<br /><br /><ul><br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <li>In one examine carried out with male Syrian golden hamsters, which targeted only on effects on the forestomach, pyloric region, and urinary bladder, the animals were dosed with zero or zero.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>In the following two-generation reproductive toxicity research RTF, , these end-factors were not investigated.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>The bulk of the urine-recovered dye must have been taken up into the sexy layer of the skin after which slowly launched into the circulation.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>Resorcinol was additionally examined in hairdressers, who might have been in touch with resorcinol-containing hair dyes.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>In rodents, the upper sensitivity is also related to a shorter plasma half-lifetime of T 4 than in people as a result of appreciable variations between species in the transport proteins for thyroid hormones.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>Thyroid glands from all surviving F 0 parents were examined microscopically, and brain measurements had been performed on all exposed F 1 pups and those F 1 pups selected for behavioural testing.</li><br />  <br />  <br />  <br /> <li>Exposure to resorcinol by the use of peeling agents presents an acute exposure situation the place the individual is exposed to a excessive focus 7.</li><br />  <br /> <br /> <br /></ul><br />For the benthic and terrestrial compartments, the available toxicity data cannot be considered enough for a quantitative risk characterization. However, these compartments are less relevant for resorcinol, because of marginal releases and emissions to those compartments in addition to a very low potential for adsorption of resorcinol to natural matter.<br />Determination of resorcinol conjugates in the h urine samples after 14 days of continuous product therapy confirmed that a maximal 23 mg 2. Assuming a physique weight of 64 kg IPCS, offers an publicity estimate of 0. In a report based on shopper research information Gans, , underneath reasonable maximum-use situations i.<br /><br /><h4></h4><br />According to the results obtained, Daphnia magna is essentially the most delicate organism, and resorcinol could be classified as acutely toxic solely to Daphnia. However, this worth is questionable to be used as a limit value in risk assessment that is the highest focus tested in this study , and the NOEC might be significantly higher than acknowledged within the study. In the environment, resorcinol is quickly degraded half-life about 2 h by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. Under aerobic situations, resorcinol proved to be readily biodegradable in a test performed according to OECD TG C, and it is likely to be biodegraded under anaerobic circumstances.<br /><br /><h1></h1><br />In , medical examinations see above and thyroid assessments were carried out with of presumably lively plant workers men and 33 women. Flaked resorcinol triggered no perceptible to average irritation intact skin or no perceptible necrosis abraded pores and skin.<br />Experimental data on soil sorption using silty loam point out a really low potential for geoaccumulation. However, the uncovered space cm 2 was significantly in excess of the common area of pores and skin usually treated for pimples. Formulations examined in the key studies anti-acne cream and hair dye have most likely changed during the last 20 or more years. Resorcinol enters the setting primarily throughout its utilization in shopper merchandise hair dyes and prescribed drugs. In addition, localized high concentrations can appear in coal conversion wastewater or in wastewater in regions with oil shale mining.<br />The organisms have been exposed to the check concentrations for 96 h. Biological observations were carried out day by day.<br /><br /><h2></h2><br />The third research, performed in , included of active workers. In topics males, 13 ladies with a imply age of 37 years, both laboratory and other tests, including medical examination, were done; no irregular thyroid glands or adjustments in T 4 values had been present in any of the topics compared with regular values Bauer, The above information are restricted as a result of small examine sizes, lack of comparison groups, missing present and historic management information, and missing information concerning potential publicity categories. In a examine in a plant producing resorcinol by sulfonation of benzene — and in addition producing beta -resorcylic acid, resorcinol—formaldehyde resins, sulfites, and sulfates — employees have been exposed primarily to resorcinol, however the publicity to other agents was not measured for exposure ranges, see section 6. In this plant, three cross-sectional studies have been carried out between and Flickinger, In , medical examinations, chest X-rays, pulmonary function, haematology, and scientific chemistry were carried out with of persons actively employed at a manufacturing plant in Pennsylvania, USA. In addition, male rats have greater circulating levels of TSH than females.

Revision as of 19:09, 13 March 2020


In rodents, the upper sensitivity can also be associated to a shorter plasma half-lifetime of T four than in people due to appreciable variations between species in the transport proteins for thyroid hormones. In plasma, the T 4 half-life is about 12—24 h in rats vs 5—9 days in humans, and the serum ranges of TSH are about 25 occasions greater in rodents than in people.
Although thyroid effects are a big finish-level in both human case-studies and animal studies, there is a lack of consistency in the ends in the animal studies. Resorcinol triggered no adverse effects in several reproduction and developmental toxicity research in rats and rabbits. Resorcinol is not thought-about to be genotoxic.
In common, the h LC 50 values for resorcinol had been in the vary between In move-via tests and analytical monitoring, DeGraeve et al. As mentioned in section 9. Complete healing was famous after about 1 week of absence from work. However, with increasing resorcinol concentrations, there was also a rise in the variety of persons who tested optimistic. Resorcinol was also examined in hairdressers, who may have been involved with resorcinol-containing hair dyes.

Animals that died showed hyperaemia and distension of abdomen and gut, whereas there were no gross lesions at necropsy in survivors Flickinger, In another examine with CFY rats. Most of the studies are of enough quality and acceptable for threat characterization purposes.
The effects had been more pronounced at seventy two h. The irritation index was given as 4. However, owing to lacking correlating histopathological changes within the three ranges of the brain examined and in the absence of a dose—response relationship, different indicators of developmental delay, or different modifications in CNS perform, these results were not thought-about as conclusive proof of a change in CNS function. In the next two-technology reproductive toxicity study RTF, , these end-points weren't investigated. No resorcinol-related effects on F 0 and F 1 pup survival or the overall bodily situation of the pups during the pre-weaning period were noticed.

Contents


Fifty per cent of survivors were sacrificed 1 week later, and blood and urine samples have been taken. Resorcinol showed a focus-dependent increase in labelling index [ three H]thymidine , acanthosis, and papillomatosis. After application of an ointment containing To examine the goitrogenic activity of resorcinol, female Wistar rats have been treated twice daily for 28 days by rubbing 6 g of an ointment containing Increased thyroid gland weights 2.
The tolerable consumption of zero. It is therefore potential that these neurological effects are because of the acute effect of the gavage administration. CNS effects in humans and animals have been associated with acute exposure to resorcinol.





  • In one examine carried out with male Syrian golden hamsters, which targeted only on effects on the forestomach, pyloric region, and urinary bladder, the animals were dosed with zero or zero.




  • In the following two-generation reproductive toxicity research RTF, , these end-factors were not investigated.




  • The bulk of the urine-recovered dye must have been taken up into the sexy layer of the skin after which slowly launched into the circulation.




  • Resorcinol was additionally examined in hairdressers, who might have been in touch with resorcinol-containing hair dyes.




  • In rodents, the upper sensitivity is also related to a shorter plasma half-lifetime of T 4 than in people as a result of appreciable variations between species in the transport proteins for thyroid hormones.




  • Thyroid glands from all surviving F 0 parents were examined microscopically, and brain measurements had been performed on all exposed F 1 pups and those F 1 pups selected for behavioural testing.




  • Exposure to resorcinol by the use of peeling agents presents an acute exposure situation the place the individual is exposed to a excessive focus 7.





For the benthic and terrestrial compartments, the available toxicity data cannot be considered enough for a quantitative risk characterization. However, these compartments are less relevant for resorcinol, because of marginal releases and emissions to those compartments in addition to a very low potential for adsorption of resorcinol to natural matter.
Determination of resorcinol conjugates in the h urine samples after 14 days of continuous product therapy confirmed that a maximal 23 mg 2. Assuming a physique weight of 64 kg IPCS, offers an publicity estimate of 0. In a report based on shopper research information Gans, , underneath reasonable maximum-use situations i.


According to the results obtained, Daphnia magna is essentially the most delicate organism, and resorcinol could be classified as acutely toxic solely to Daphnia. However, this worth is questionable to be used as a limit value in risk assessment that is the highest focus tested in this study , and the NOEC might be significantly higher than acknowledged within the study. In the environment, resorcinol is quickly degraded half-life about 2 h by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. Under aerobic situations, resorcinol proved to be readily biodegradable in a test performed according to OECD TG C, and it is likely to be biodegraded under anaerobic circumstances.


In , medical examinations see above and thyroid assessments were carried out with of presumably lively plant workers men and 33 women. Flaked resorcinol triggered no perceptible to average irritation intact skin or no perceptible necrosis abraded pores and skin.
Experimental data on soil sorption using silty loam point out a really low potential for geoaccumulation. However, the uncovered space cm 2 was significantly in excess of the common area of pores and skin usually treated for pimples. Formulations examined in the key studies anti-acne cream and hair dye have most likely changed during the last 20 or more years. Resorcinol enters the setting primarily throughout its utilization in shopper merchandise hair dyes and prescribed drugs. In addition, localized high concentrations can appear in coal conversion wastewater or in wastewater in regions with oil shale mining.
The organisms have been exposed to the check concentrations for 96 h. Biological observations were carried out day by day.


The third research, performed in , included of active workers. In topics males, 13 ladies with a imply age of 37 years, both laboratory and other tests, including medical examination, were done; no irregular thyroid glands or adjustments in T 4 values had been present in any of the topics compared with regular values Bauer, The above information are restricted as a result of small examine sizes, lack of comparison groups, missing present and historic management information, and missing information concerning potential publicity categories. In a examine in a plant producing resorcinol by sulfonation of benzene — and in addition producing beta -resorcylic acid, resorcinol—formaldehyde resins, sulfites, and sulfates — employees have been exposed primarily to resorcinol, however the publicity to other agents was not measured for exposure ranges, see section 6. In this plant, three cross-sectional studies have been carried out between and Flickinger, In , medical examinations, chest X-rays, pulmonary function, haematology, and scientific chemistry were carried out with of persons actively employed at a manufacturing plant in Pennsylvania, USA. In addition, male rats have greater circulating levels of TSH than females.